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In addition to educating reason, of central importance to him was the development of character and teaching of moral maxims. Kant was a proponent of public education and of learning by doing. Only fragments of Aristotle's treatise On Education are still in existence. We thus know of his philosophy of education primarily through brief passages in other works.
Aristotle considered human nature, habit and reason to be equally important forces to be cultivated in education. The teacher was to lead the student systematically; this differs, for example, from Socrates' emphasis on questioning his listeners to bring out their own ideas though the comparison is perhaps incongruous since Socrates was dealing with adults. Aristotle placed great emphasis on balancing the theoretical and practical aspects of subjects taught.
Subjects he explicitly mentions as being important included reading, writing and mathematics; music; physical education; literature and history; and a wide range of sciences.
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He also mentioned the importance of play. One of education's primary missions for Aristotle, perhaps its most important, was to produce good and virtuous citizens for the polis. All who have meditated on the art of governing mankind have been convinced that the fate of empires depends on the education of youth. In the medieval Islamic world , an elementary school was known as a maktab , which dates back to at least the 10th century.
Like madrasahs which referred to higher education , a maktab was often attached to a mosque. In the 11th century, Ibn Sina known as Avicenna in the West , wrote a chapter dealing with the maktab entitled "The Role of the Teacher in the Training and Upbringing of Children", as a guide to teachers working at maktab schools. He wrote that children can learn better if taught in classes instead of individual tuition from private tutors , and he gave a number of reasons for why this is the case, citing the value of competition and emulation among pupils as well as the usefulness of group discussions and debates.
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Ibn Sina described the curriculum of a maktab school in some detail, describing the curricula for two stages of education in a maktab school. Ibn Sina wrote that children should be sent to a maktab school from the age of 6 and be taught primary education until they reach the age of During which time, he wrote that they should be taught the Qur'an , Islamic metaphysics , language , literature , Islamic ethics , and manual skills which could refer to a variety of practical skills. Ibn Sina refers to the secondary education stage of maktab schooling as the period of specialization, when pupils should begin to acquire manual skills, regardless of their social status.
He writes that children after the age of 14 should be given a choice to choose and specialize in subjects they have an interest in, whether it was reading, manual skills, literature, preaching, medicine , geometry , trade and commerce , craftsmanship , or any other subject or profession they would be interested in pursuing for a future career. He wrote that this was a transitional stage and that there needs to be flexibility regarding the age in which pupils graduate, as the student's emotional development and chosen subjects need to be taken into account.
The empiricist theory of ' tabula rasa ' was also developed by Ibn Sina.
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He argued that the "human intellect at birth is rather like a tabula rasa , a pure potentiality that is actualized through education and comes to know" and that knowledge is attained through " empirical familiarity with objects in this world from which one abstracts universal concepts" which is developed through a " syllogistic method of reasoning ; observations lead to prepositional statements, which when compounded lead to further abstract concepts. In the 12th century, the Andalusian - Arabian philosopher and novelist Ibn Tufail known as "Abubacer" or "Ebn Tophail" in the West demonstrated the empiricist theory of ' tabula rasa ' as a thought experiment through his Arabic philosophical novel , Hayy ibn Yaqzan , in which he depicted the development of the mind of a feral child "from a tabula rasa to that of an adult, in complete isolation from society" on a desert island , through experience alone.
Some scholars have argued that the Latin translation of his philosophical novel , Philosophus Autodidactus , published by Edward Pococke the Younger in , had an influence on John Locke 's formulation of tabula rasa in " An Essay Concerning Human Understanding ". In Some Thoughts Concerning Education and Of the Conduct of the Understanding Locke composed an outline on how to educate this mind in order to increase its powers and activity:.
It is therefore to give them this freedom, that I think they should be made to look into all sorts of knowledge, and exercise their understandings in so wide a variety and stock of knowledge. But I do not propose it as a variety and stock of knowledge, but a variety and freedom of thinking, as an increase of the powers and activity of the mind, not as an enlargement of its possessions.
Locke expressed the belief that education maketh the man, or, more fundamentally, that the mind is an "empty cabinet", with the statement, "I think I may say that of all the men we meet with, nine parts of ten are what they are, good or evil, useful or not, by their education. Locke also wrote that "the little and almost insensible impressions on our tender infancies have very important and lasting consequences.
In his Essay , in which is introduced both of these concepts, Locke warns against, for example, letting "a foolish maid" convince a child that "goblins and sprites" are associated with the night for "darkness shall ever afterwards bring with it those frightful ideas, and they shall be so joined, that he can no more bear the one than the other.
It also led to the development of psychology and other new disciplines with David Hartley 's attempt to discover a biological mechanism for associationism in his Observations on Man Rousseau, though he paid his respects to Plato's philosophy, rejected it as impractical due to the decayed state of society. This was an intrinsic, natural process, of which the primary behavioral manifestation was curiosity.
This differed from Locke's ' tabula rasa ' in that it was an active process deriving from the child's nature, which drove the child to learn and adapt to its surroundings. Rousseau wrote in his book Emile that all children are perfectly designed organisms, ready to learn from their surroundings so as to grow into virtuous adults, but due to the malign influence of corrupt society, they often fail to do so.
Rousseau was unusual in that he recognized and addressed the potential of a problem of legitimation for teaching. He once said that a child should grow up without adult interference and that the child must be guided to suffer from the experience of the natural consequences of his own acts or behaviour. When he experiences the consequences of his own acts, he advises himself. From this difference comes a contrasting education.
They are not to be brought up in ignorance and kept to housework: Nature means them to think, to will, to love to cultivate their minds as well as their persons; she puts these weapons in their hands to make up for their lack of strength and to enable them to direct the strength of men.
They should learn many things, but only such things as suitable' Everyman edn. Mortimer Jerome Adler was an American philosopher , educator, and popular author. As a philosopher he worked within the Aristotelian and Thomistic traditions. Adler was married twice and had four children. Broudy's philosophical views were based on the tradition of classical realism, dealing with truth, goodness, and beauty. However he was also influenced by the modern philosophy existentialism and instrumentalism. In his textbook Building a Philosophy of Education he has two major ideas that are the main points to his philosophical outlook: The first is truth and the second is universal structures to be found in humanity's struggle for education and the good life.
Broudy also studied issues on society's demands on school. He thought education would be a link to unify the diverse society and urged the society to put more trust and a commitment to the schools and a good education. See Religious perennialism.
The objective of medieval education was an overtly religious one, primarily concerned with uncovering transcendental truths that would lead a person back to God through a life of moral and religious choice Kreeft The vehicle by which these truths were uncovered was dialectic:. To the medieval mind, debate was a fine art, a serious science, and a fascinating entertainment, much more than it is to the modern mind, because the medievals believed, like Socrates, that dialectic could uncover truth.
Thus a 'scholastic disputation' was not a personal contest in cleverness, nor was it 'sharing opinions'; it was a shared journey of discovery Kreeft 14— In Democracy and Education: An Introduction to the Philosophy of Education , Dewey stated that education, in its broadest sense, is the means of the "social continuity of life" given the "primary ineluctable facts of the birth and death of each one of the constituent members in a social group". Education is therefore a necessity, for "the life of the group goes on. He was a major figure in the progressive education movement of the early 20th century.
Kilpatrick developed the Project Method for early childhood education, which was a form of Progressive Education organized curriculum and classroom activities around a subject's central theme. He believed that the role of a teacher should be that of a "guide" as opposed to an authoritarian figure.
Kilpatrick believed that children should direct their own learning according to their interests and should be allowed to explore their environment, experiencing their learning through the natural senses. While her work on ethics continued, with the publication of Women and Evil and later works on moral education, most of her later publications have been on the philosophy of education and educational theory.
Her most significant works in these areas have been Educating for Intelligent Belief or Unbelief and Philosophy of Education Noddings' contribution to education philosophy centers around the ethic of care. Her belief was that a caring teacher-student relationship will result in the teacher designing a differentiated curriculum for each student, and that this curriculum would be based around the students' particular interests and needs. The teacher's claim to care must not be based on a one time virtuous decision but an ongoing interest in the students' welfare.
The existentialist sees the world as one's personal subjectivity, where goodness, truth, and reality are individually defined. Reality is a world of existing, truth subjectively chosen, and goodness a matter of freedom. The subject matter of existentialist classrooms should be a matter of personal choice. Teachers view the individual as an entity within a social context in which the learner must confront others' views to clarify his or her own. Character development emphasizes individual responsibility for decisions. Real answers come from within the individual, not from outside authority.
Examining life through authentic thinking involves students in genuine learning experiences. Existentialists are opposed to thinking about students as objects to be measured, tracked, or standardized. Such educators want the educational experience to focus on creating opportunities for self-direction and self-actualization. They start with the student, rather than on curriculum content. A Brazilian philosopher and educator committed to the cause of educating the impoverished peasants of his nation and collaborating with them in the pursuit of their liberation from what he regarded as "oppression," Freire is best known for his attack on what he called the "banking concept of education," in which the student was viewed as an empty account to be filled by the teacher.
Freire also suggests that a deep reciprocity be inserted into our notions of teacher and student; he comes close to suggesting that the teacher-student dichotomy be completely abolished, instead promoting the roles of the participants in the classroom as the teacher-student a teacher who learns and the student-teacher a learner who teaches.
In its early, strong form this kind of classroom has sometimes been criticized [ by whom?
Aspects of the Freirian philosophy have been highly influential in academic debates over "participatory development" and development more generally. Freire's emphasis on what he describes as "emancipation" through interactive participation has been used as a rationale for the participatory focus of development, as it is held that 'participation' in any form can lead to empowerment of poor or marginalised groups.
Freire was a proponent of critical pedagogy. Heidegger's philosophizing about education was primarily related to higher education.
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He believed that teaching and research in the university should be unified and aim towards testing and interrogating the "ontological assumptions presuppositions which implicitly guide research in each domain of knowledge. In a full-fledged philosophical normative theory of education, besides analysis of the sorts described, there will normally be propositions of the following kinds: . Perennialists believe that one should teach the things that one deems to be of everlasting importance to all people everywhere.
They believe that the most important topics develop a person. Since details of fact change constantly, these cannot be the most important. Therefore, one should teach principles, not facts. Since people are human, one should teach first about humans, not machines or techniques. Since people are people first, and workers second if at all, one should teach liberal topics first, not vocational topics.
The focus is primarily on teaching reasoning and wisdom rather than facts, the liberal arts rather than vocational training. Bloom, a professor of political science at the University of Chicago , argued for a traditional Great Books -based liberal education in his lengthy essay The Closing of the American Mind. The Classical education movement advocates a form of education based in the traditions of Western culture, with a particular focus on education as understood and taught in the Middle Ages. The term "classical education" has been used in English for several centuries, with each era modifying the definition and adding its own selection of topics.
By the end of the 18th century, in addition to the trivium and quadrivium of the Middle Ages, the definition of a classical education embraced study of literature, poetry, drama, philosophy, history, art, and languages. In the 20th and 21st centuries it is used to refer to a broad-based study of the liberal arts and sciences, as opposed to a practical or pre-professional program. Classical Education can be described as rigorous and systematic, separating children and their learning into three rigid categories, Grammar, Dialectic, and Rhetoric.
Mason was a British educator who invested her life in improving the quality of children's education. Her ideas led to a method used by some homeschoolers. Mason's philosophy of education is probably best summarized by the principles given at the beginning of each of her books. Two key mottos taken from those principles are "Education is an atmosphere, a discipline, a life" and "Education is the science of relations.
Her motto for students was "I am, I can, I ought, I will. She preferred that parents or teachers read aloud those texts such as Plutarch and the Old Testament , making omissions only where necessary. Educational essentialism is an educational philosophy whose adherents believe that children should learn the traditional basic subjects and that these should be learned thoroughly and rigorously.
This is based on the view that there are essentials that men should know for being educated and are expected to learn the academic areas of reading, writing, mathematics, science, geography , and technology. An essentialist program normally teaches children progressively, from less complex skills to more complex. The " back to basics " movement is an example of essentialism. William Chandler Bagley taught in elementary schools before becoming a professor of education at the University of Illinois, where he served as the Director of the School of Education from until He was a professor of education at Teachers College, Columbia, from to An opponent of pragmatism and progressive education, Bagley insisted on the value of knowledge for its own sake, not merely as an instrument, and he criticized his colleagues for their failure to emphasize systematic study of academic subjects.
Bagley was a proponent of educational essentialism. Critical pedagogy is an "educational movement, guided by passion and principle, to help students develop consciousness of freedom, recognize authoritarian tendencies, and connect knowledge to power and the ability to take constructive action. The Montessori method arose from Dr. Maria Montessori's discovery of what she referred to as "the child's true normal nature" in ,  which happened in the process of her experimental observation of young children given freedom in an environment prepared with materials designed for their self-directed learning activity.
Waldorf education also known as Steiner or Steiner-Waldorf education is a humanistic approach to pedagogy based upon the educational philosophy of the Austrian philosopher Rudolf Steiner, the founder of anthroposophy. Learning is interdisciplinary, integrating practical, artistic, and conceptual elements. The approach emphasizes the role of the imagination in learning, developing thinking that includes a creative as well as an analytic component.
The educational philosophy's overarching goals are to provide young people the basis on which to develop into free, morally responsible and integrated individuals, and to help every child fulfill his or her unique destiny, the existence of which anthroposophy posits. Schools and teachers are given considerable freedom to define curricula within collegial structures.
Steiner founded a holistic educational impulse on the basis of his spiritual philosophy anthroposophy. Schools are normally self-administered by faculty; emphasis is placed upon giving individual teachers the freedom to develop creative methods. Steiner's theory of child development divides education into three discrete developmental stages predating but with close similarities to the stages of development described by Piaget. Early childhood education occurs through imitation; teachers provide practical activities and a healthy environment.
Steiner believed that young children should meet only goodness. Elementary education is strongly arts-based, centered on the teacher's creative authority; the elementary school-age child should meet beauty. Secondary education seeks to develop the judgment, intellect, and practical idealism; the adolescent should meet truth. Democratic education is a theory of learning and school governance in which students and staff participate freely and equally in a school democracy.
In a democratic school, there is typically shared decision-making among students and staff on matters concerning living, working, and learning together. Neill founded Summerhill School , the oldest existing democratic school in Suffolk, England in He wrote a number of books that now define much of contemporary democratic education philosophy. Neill believed that the happiness of the child should be the paramount consideration in decisions about the child's upbringing, and that this happiness grew from a sense of personal freedom.
He felt that deprivation of this sense of freedom during childhood, and the consequent unhappiness experienced by the repressed child, was responsible for many of the psychological disorders of adulthood.
Dr Derek Sankey
Educational progressivism is the belief that education must be based on the principle that humans are social animals who learn best in real-life activities with other people. Progressivists , like proponents of most educational theories, claim to rely on the best available scientific theories of learning. Most progressive educators believe that children learn as if they were scientists, following a process similar to John Dewey's model of learning known as "the pattern of inquiry":  1 Become aware of the problem.
In , Dewey opened the Laboratory School at the University of Chicago in an institutional effort to pursue together rather than apart "utility and culture, absorption and expression, theory and practice, [which] are [indispensable] elements in any educational scheme. The two most influential works that stemmed from his research and study were The Child and the Curriculum and Democracy and Education We get the case of the child vs. Jean Piaget was a Swiss developmental psychologist known for his epistemological studies with children.
His theory of cognitive development and epistemological view are together called " genetic epistemology ". Piaget placed great importance on the education of children. As the Director of the International Bureau of Education, he declared in that "only education is capable of saving our societies from possible collapse, whether violent, or gradual. According to Ernst von Glasersfeld , Jean Piaget is "the great pioneer of the constructivist theory of knowing. Jean Piaget described himself as an epistemologist , interested in the process of the qualitative development of knowledge. Another important contributor to the inquiry method in education is Bruner.
His books The Process of Education and Toward a Theory of Instruction are landmarks in conceptualizing learning and curriculum development. He argued that any subject can be taught in some intellectually honest form to any child at any stage of development. This notion was an underpinning for his concept of the " spiral " helical curriculum which posited the idea that a curriculum should revisit basic ideas, building on them until the student had grasped the full formal concept. He emphasized intuition as a neglected but essential feature of productive thinking. He felt that interest in the material being learned was the best stimulus for learning rather than external motivation such as grades.
Bruner developed the concept of discovery learning which promoted learning as a process of constructing new ideas based on current or past knowledge.
Students are encouraged to discover facts and relationships and continually build on what they already know. Unschooling is a range of educational philosophies and practices centered on allowing children to learn through their natural life experiences, including child directed play , game play, household responsibilities, work experience, and social interaction , rather than through a more traditional school curriculum.
Unschooling encourages exploration of activities led by the children themselves, facilitated by the adults. Unschooling differs from conventional schooling principally in the thesis that standard curricula and conventional grading methods, as well as other features of traditional schooling, are counterproductive to the goal of maximizing the education of each child.
In Holt published his first book, How Children Fail , asserting that the academic failure of schoolchildren was not despite the efforts of the schools, but actually because of the schools. Not surprisingly, How Children Fail ignited a firestorm of controversy. Holt was catapulted into the American national consciousness to the extent that he made appearances on major TV talk shows, wrote book reviews for Life magazine, and was a guest on the To Tell The Truth TV game show.
Contemplative education focuses on bringing introspective practices such as mindfulness and yoga into curricular and pedagogical processes for diverse aims grounded in secular, spiritual, religious and post-secular perspectives. Parker Palmer is a recent pioneer in contemplative methods. Contemplative methods may also be used by teachers in their preparation; Waldorf education was one of the pioneers of the latter approach.
In this case, inspiration for enriching the content, format, or teaching methods may be sought through various practices, such as consciously reviewing the previous day's activities; actively holding the students in consciousness; and contemplating inspiring pedagogical texts.
Zigler suggested that only through focusing on their own spiritual development could teachers positively impact the spiritual development of students. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Main article: Plato. Main article: Immanuel Kant. Main article: Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel. Main article: Aristotle. Main article: Avicenna. Main article: Ibn Tufail. Main article: John Locke.
Main article: Jean-Jacques Rousseau. Main article: Mortimer Jerome Adler. Main article: Harry Broudy. Main article: Thomas Aquinas. Main article: John Milton. See also: Of Education. At Home on Planet Earth. Oxford: Basil Blackwell. Book chapters Sankey, D. Cultivating moral values in an age of neuroscience.
Joldersma Ed. Being and belonging: Feeling at home on planet Earth. In Lovat, T. Education and the Philosophy of Mind and Brain. In Tan, C. Journal articles Duncan, C. Two conflicting visions of education and their consilience. Educational Philosophy and Theory. Philosophy, neuroscience and pre-service teachers' beliefs in neuromyths: A call for remedial action.
Educational Philosophy and Theory , 50 13 , — The neurobiology of trust and schooling. Educational Philosophy and Theory , 50 2 , — Future horizons: moral learning and the socially embedded synaptic self. Journal of Moral Education , 40 3 , — European Journal of Dental Education , 15, 1—9. Australian Journal of Teacher Education , 35 4 , 79— The Ethic of Forgetfulness. Educational Philosophy and Theory , 42 2 , — Journal of Moral Education , 38 3 , — Education Policy, Research and Neuroscience: The final solution?.
Australian Journal of Teacher Education , 33 3 , 31— Minds, Brains and Difference in Personal Understanding. Educational Philosophy and Theory , 39 5 , —